Mood swing in women before menstruation


On approaching menstruation or period, one of the complaints women reports is mood swings. What causes mood swings during menstruation? Is it dangerous for health? Every healthy productive age woman will experience menstruation or period every month. Typically, before the menstrual period arrives, women will experience changes in mood or mood swings. These mood changes before the period are also known as Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). 

A mood swing is a sudden and apparently inexplicable change in mood. You may be happy and elated at one moment but in the next moment, you are expressing hostility and anger. You must be familiar with this situation. It is normal to feel mood swings or emotional changes before or during the period. But your mood is important to what you do and the way you do it. 


A bad mood could affect everything from what you choose to eat to how you interact with others, even your partner. So, why your emotions do turns wild before menstruation. Here in HEALTHY and FITNESS we will explore the possible the causes of mood swing around the period and provides tips to prevent the effects that come from hormonal fluctuations



Mood swing can happen for several reasons. But mood swing before or during the menstrual period happens due to 3 major reasons:

1. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome (PMS)

2. Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

3. Hormonal change

1. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Pre-Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a set of symptoms that happens in women, usually between ovulation and period. Experts believe that about 75% of menstruating women experience some sort of PMS. PMS causes both emotional and physical symptoms. 

The exact causes of PMS are not known. Those who experience PMS mood swings can feel sad, angry, suddenly laugh, or become more sensitive for any reason. The symptoms of PMS other than mood swings involve tender breasts, fatigue, food craving, irritability, and depression. 

These symptoms can commence at any point between the end of ovulation and the onset of the menstrual period. Symptoms of PMS may vary widely, for some it may be very mild, while others may experience harsh symptoms.  

2. Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a more severe form of PMS. About 3.8% of menstruating women experience PMDD symptoms. These symptoms are severe that they may affect the person’s daily activities and sometimes their relationship with others. 

Symptoms of PMDD include:

- Mood swing

- Severe depression, anxiety, and irritability

- Panic attack

- A frequent episode of crying

- Loss of interest in activities and other persons.

Suicidal ideation or attempts are possible symptoms of PMDD. According to the International Association for Premenstrual Disorder (IAPMD), an estimated 15% of women with PMDD will attempt to suicide in their lifetime. 

3. Effect of Hormone Changes on Mood Swing

What Are The Female Sex Hormones?

Hormones are natural substances produced by the body and play an important role in various functions and processes in the body, from growth, metabolism, sexual function, and reproduction. Hormones also regulate our mood. Hormonal changes in women can affect their mood. There are two main types of hormones in women, namely estrogen and progesterone. The levels of both hormones will change throughout the menstrual cycle. 

Estrogen: The hormone estrogen plays an important role in the reproductive process and develops female sexual characteristics, such as breast growth, body shape, and regulation of the menstrual cycle.

Progesterone: Meanwhile, the hormone progesterone plays a greater role in regulating the menstrual cycle and supporting pregnancy, such as preparing the uterine lining for a fertilized egg and suppressing estrogen production after ovulation.

Effect of Hormone Changes on Mood

Hormonal changes in women are a normal condition to occur, especially before and during menstruation, during pregnancy, after childbirth, and before menopause. The effects of hormonal changes often cause women to experience mood swings, making them irritable, sad, offended, lazy, and even depressed. 

Generally, this occurs 1 or 2 weeks before your period, when estrogen and progesterone levels change drastically. In one menstrual cycle, estrogen continues to be released until it reaches its peak when there is an egg release or ovulation. After that estrogen levels drop dramatically before slowly increasing again. 

The role of estrogen in general is to influence the production and effect of endorphins, the elements in the brain that produce comfort and pleasure. Estrogen will also increase serotonin levels which play a role in appetite, mood, and sleep patterns. 

In addition, this hormone functions to protect nerves from damage and stimulate nerve growth. The normal level of estrogen in one woman and another is different. Some women are also more sensitive to changes in estrogen levels during their period than some other women. This group of women is most susceptible to mood swings, even bad moods during menstruation. 

The normal level of estrogen in one woman and another is different. Some women are also more sensitive to changes in estrogen levels during their period than some other women. This group of women is most susceptible to mood swings, even bad moods during menstruation. 

Hormonal fluctuations can also affect body weight, appetite, and desire to have sex. Being under stress, anxiety, depression, or being on a diet is some of the factors that can affect the rise and fall of the hormone estrogen.


Dietary and lifestyle changes can help you in handling mild cases of mood swings. Here are some ways you can deal with mood swings due to hormonal changes:


1.     Avoid Cigarettes And Liquor

When you are in a mood swing, you should avoid smoking cigarettes consuming alcoholic drinks. A group of Spanish researchers found that consuming alcohol increases the risk of premenstrual mood swing by 45 percent and drinking more than one alcoholic drink a day increase the risk of PMS by 79 percent. It is thought to be due to the fact that alcohol alters the level of female sex hormones in women’s bodies. In addition to making you feel tired, they can also cause or worsen anxiety. 

B.    Avoid Caffeine

According to research conducted at the University of Massachusetts, reducing or avoiding caffeine intake can help reduce breast pain and mood flatulence that often occurs near the time of menstruation. Caffeine is a powerful stimulant and consuming caffeinated drinks may worsen the condition of mood swings before menstruation.

C.     Deal With Stress

Mood swings can cause a variety of complaints. One of them is stress. Uncontrolled stress can exacerbate mood swings. To control stress, you can do meditation, yoga, or massage therapy. You can do these stress management methods yourself or with the help of an instructor.


D.    Get Quality Sleep

Some women experience physical problems during PMS, namely body aches and fatigue. These will also hamper your mood. Do not force yourself to excessive physical activities during PMS. Make sure you get enough rest, by sleeping about 8 hours a day so that tomorrow can face the next day with a happy heart. This also makes your immune system better, so that complaints that occur before menstruation are not too severe.


E.     Birth Control Pills 

For some women, taking birth control pills can stabilize hormones and reduce the risk of PMS. Several studies found that hormonal birth control pills, especially those contains drospirenone can control mood swings associated with PMS or PMDD. Oral birth control pills containing hormones stabilize the abrupt change in hormonal level and elevate the physical and psychological symptoms that appear before the period. 

But for others, hormonal birth control pills or patches may worsen the mood swing. And if so, they must some other methods of birth control. 


F.     Exercise Regularly

Apart from improving physical health, doing regular exercise is also good for maintaining mental health. When exercising, your body will produce endorphins, hormones that provide feelings of pleasure and happiness and are good for reducing stress and dealing with mood swings. You can engage in leisurely sports activities like cycling or walking.


1.     Take A Nutritious Diet

Eating nutritious foods, especially those containing complex carbohydrates is thought to help overcome mood swings due to hormonal changes. The reason is this substance can increase the production of the hormone serotonin which can improve mood. Examples of foods that contain complex carbohydrates are whole grains and legumes. Various other foods that you can consume to deal with mood swings are broccoli, carrots, spinach, pumpkin, cabbage, tomatoes, and sweet potatoes. Drink lots of water to stay hydrated as dehydration increases stress. Avoid sugary foods or drinks as much as possible, because the sugar contained in them can cause fluctuations in blood glucose levels which can worsen mood swings.

2.     Take Enough Calcium and Vitamin D 

A 2017 clinical trial found that adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D can reduce the severity of complaints that occur before menstruation. Calcium level changes throughout the menstrual cycle and women suffering from premenstrual symptoms are found to have a calcium deficiency. Calcium supplements effectively reduce physiological symptoms like bloating and fatigue and psychological symptoms, including sadness, mood swings, and anxiety. Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of dietary calcium in the gut. You can consume low-fat milk, cheese, yogurt, and orange juice to meet these nutritional needs.


1.     Avoid Arguments

In the time before and during your period, as much as possible limit yourself from unnecessary arguments, especially in sensitive matters such as financial matters or personal relationships. Trying to avoid any kind of debate while having PMS, be it at work, with a boyfriend, or friends, you should avoid it. The trick is, when an argument gets tough and there is no middle ground, try telling the other person that it will be discussed at another time.

2.     Make Time For Yourself

No matter how busy your daily activities are, try to take some time for yourself. Spent the time watching a movie at the cinema, going to the salon, eating your favorite food, or shopping. Anyway, do things that can please your mood and this can keep you in a good mood.

3.     Meditate 

Research findings from 20 randomized control trials suggested that meditation was effective in reducing the severity of non-psychotic mood disorders such as Premenstrual Syndrome. Meditation also reduces stress and anxiety by reducing the stress hormone. To reap the benefits of meditation, practice it throughout the month, not just when your period hits. Make out 10 minutes from your busy schedule to practice meditation. It is an inexpensive way to control mood and improve your overall mental health. 

4.     Increase Self-Motivation

If you already feel grumpy, want to complain, and get angry. Try to withdraw from the crowd and relax for a moment to manage your emotions. Affirm yourself repeatedly with positive sentences that can motivate you and can forget the emotions that are felt. 

Hormonal changes in women are a natural process that can have an effect on mood swings. However, if the mood swings due to hormonal changes interfere with daily activities, consult a doctor so that proper treatment can be given.

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